Fruit forest seedlings at the beginning of sowing or cuttings, because the seeds or ears without roots into a small root system, water absorption capacity is poor, although less water, but the requirement of water is more adequate, such as because of drought watering, causing surface soil compaction, poor permeability, adverse bud excavation, rooting and growth of cuttings.After the application of soil water retention agent, the physical (leakage, evaporation) water loss is very little, and can absorb water repeatedly for a long time, water supply;The soil layer where seeds or cuttings root is located is more stable in water and heat, which is conducive to seed germination and excavation, cuttings rooting and growth, and also reduces labor costs.The application technology of water retention agent in seedling cultivation of fruit forest is introduced below.
1 method of use
1.1 sowing ditch casting
Seeds using seeding seedling, open ditch, more use of small granular or powder of super absorbent polymers, with just the right amount of fine soil for broadcasting evenly mix well, sprinkle in the sowing ditch, with narrow hoe mix of soil, water retention agent distribution evenly in the groove of 7-10 cm soil layer, and then the ditch water, under water permeability, water again, make water retention agent fully absorb moisture, finally, sow, cover earth, a seed of the smaller, such as apples, pears, acacia seeds can be carried out to sow his seed;Large seeds, such as peach, chestnut, walnut seeds can be on demand.Water-holding agent 4-5kg/hm2.
1.2 ground seeding
Adopt sowing seedling, after leveling the furrow, with the above method to choose and treat the water retention agent sprinkle in the furrow, with 2 teeth hook cut the furrow 2-3 times, so that the water retention agent evenly distributed in the 7-10cm soil layer, with iron rake around the flat furrow, pouring water twice, so that the water retention agent absorb enough water, water infiltration, sowing, covering soil.Application of water protection agent 5-6kg/hm2, more suitable for paulownia, kiwi, law, such as small seeds seedlings.
1.3 seed coating (coating) method
Layer up, soak, accelerate the seed that wait for treatment, soak with clear water, get out in the sieve, control go excessive moisture, put in the implement such as basin, dustpan inside, 1kg seed USES 30-50g powdery water retention agent, sprinkle on wet seed, shake up and down, make the seed be covered with water retention agent after, can sow.This method is more suitable for kui, hawthorn, jujube and other sowing seedlings.
1.4 seed mud method
Water retention agent: mix the soil in a ratio of 1:300-500 and then add water to synthesize mud, so that the water retention agent can be fully absorbed and used for backup.When sowing seedlings in drill mode, open a good sowing ditch, the ditch filled with enough water;After soaking, stratification, germination and other treatment of the seeds, dip in the above synthetic mud, sow in the sowing ditch, soil.This method is more suitable for walnut, ginkgo, apricot and other large seeds seeding seedlings.Long germinating seeds, because the operation of easy to damage the bud and young roots, should not claw this method.
1.5 seed cover method
When sowing seedlings in a drill way, open a sowing ditch and sow the seeds in the sowing ditch on demand after being soaked, stratified and accelerated.Water retention agent: the fine soil according to the ratio of 1:500 fully mixed, each seed in the ditch, covering the mixed soil 100-200g, and then covering about half of the soil (over the mixed soil), ditch irrigation, so that the water retention agent full absorption, finally covered with soil.This method is suitable for large seeds.
1.6 cuttings packing method
Water-retaining agent: the soil adds water to synthesize thick mud in the proportion of 1:300-1:550, so that the water-retaining agent can absorb water and be used for backup.According to the method of conventional cutting and seedling cultivation, the land was prepared to make beds to open cutting ditches, the treated cuttings rooting end 4-5cm section and section covered with a good thick mud, thick mud thickness 1-2cm;Then cutting (planting) in the cutting ditch, cutting (planting) after watering.
1.7 cuttage casting
Conventional cutting seedlings method, soil preparation for strip cutting groove, mix the powder or granular water retention agent on the part of the fine soil, uniform in cutting groove, using a narrow head unit to the concave hook mix of soil, water retention agent distribution evenly in the soil of groove 7-10 cm, mix well after cutting, cutting the lower section of not more than mixed soil containing water retention agent, water, finally make water retention agent sufficient moisture absorption.Each 666.7m2 of water-holding agent is 5-6kg.
1.8 seedling mud method
Water-retaining agent: the proportion of 1:300-1:550 is added to the soil to synthesize mud, and the water-retaining agent can be fully absorbed and used for backup.Seedlings, seedlings, return to the nursery (tiller, plant) seedlings, digging and grafting seedlings, etc., before planting, the root dip above synthetic mud, practice planting.Water absorption rate is high, water absorption rate is fast, is the first choice of fruit forest seedling soil water retention agent.
2. Determine the appropriate amount of water retention agent
Fruit forest seedlings were treated with water-retaining agent, such as the starch grafting acrylic salt water-retaining agent suitable for Taiwan seedlings. The water-absorbing rate was more than 200 times, and 5-6kg/hm2 was generally applied.However, due to different soil types, natural precipitation, irrigation conditions, and so on, there are differences in the amount of application, dry areas, sandy soil, barren land, to appropriate more application;Clay soil, loam soil with strong water retention and fertility, areas with more natural precipitation and convenient irrigation, can be properly applied less.Also because the seedling application method is different and the dosage is different, for example, the ditch application method, the sower application method dosage is more, and the coating method, the mud method dosage is less.
3. Select the appropriate application method of water-retaining agent
Fruit forest seedlings more than sowing ditch and cuttage ditch application, because these two kinds of application of more water retention agent, water storage, more long time to supply water to the seedlings;The application of water retention agent is also relatively deep, by light, heat, dry early impact is small, long service life.Water - retaining agent should be applied in fruit forest seedling.When applying water-retaining agent, water-retaining agent: the soil is generally mixed in a proportion of 300-1000. If the mixture is not evenly mixed, a large amount of water will be absorbed at the concentrated place of water-retaining agent, which will affect the air and heat of the local soil layer and affect the growth of local root system, or even rot the root.After the soil application of water retention agent, do not tread first, keep the soil loose, after watering, water retention agent water absorption expansion has a larger space.
Keep hydrated when the weather is dry
Water retention agent absorption, storage of irrigation water or natural precipitation, in order to provide water in succession, drought, generally about 20d (apply more water retention agent) need irrigation water;Otherwise, seedlings by dry early, affect growth, water retention agent water absorption, water supply capacity failure fast, shorten the service life.Application of water agent less seedling (seed coating method, etc.) should pay more attention to irrigation.
5. Mixing water retention agent with fertilizer should pay attention to rationality
Most chemical fertilizer (organic fertilizer) can be mixed with water retention agent, application of chemical fertilizer, the first application of water retention agent, and soil mixing, and then add chemical fertilizer mixing, especially containing potassium, calcium, ammonium plasma fertilizer, should be applied in this way.It should not be used with fertilizers containing divalent metal elements such as zinc, manganese and magnesium.